Optical observational programs at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

Jagdev Singh* and B. Ravindra
Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, India

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The Indian Institute of Astrophysics has been making optical observations of the sun for more than a century by taking images of the sun in continuum to study the photosphere, Ca-K line and H-alpha line in order to study the chromosphere by using the same instruments which are used to study the long term variations of the magnetic fields on the sun. The digitizers have been developed using uniform light sources, imaging optics without any vignetting in the required FOV and large format 4K×4K CCD cameras to digitize the data for scientific studies. At the Solar Tower Telescope we have performed very high resolution spectroscopic observations around Ca-K line to investigate the variations and delineate the contribution of various features to the solar cycle variations. Solar coronal studies have been done during the occurrence of total solar eclipses and with a coronagraph to study the coronal heating. Here we discuss the systematic temporal variations observed in the green and red emission profiles using high spectral and temporal observations during the 2006, 2009 and 2010 total solar eclipses. The TWIN telescope a new facility has been fabricated and installed at Kodaikanal observatory to continue the synoptic observations of the sun and a space-based coronagraph is also being designed and fabricated in collaboration with various laboratories of ISRO (LEOS, ISAC and SAC) and USO. In this article we present the summary of results of optical observational programs carried out at Kodaikanal Observatory and during the eclipse expeditions where authors have played a leading role. Furthermore, this review is not complete in all respects of all the observational programs carried out at the Kodaikanal observatory.

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Keywords : Sun: photosphere – Sun: chromosphere – Sun: corona